Forging is a manufacturing process where metals and alloys are shaped into desired forms through the application of repeated blows from a hammer. This process is typically performed at high temperatures (hot forging), although some forging operations can be done at room temperature (cold forging)

1. Types of Forging

1.1 Open Die Forging

In this method, the metal is not fully enclosed during the process. Open die forgings are often produced using flat, V-shaped, or swaging dies. An example of open die forging is the “upsetting” operation, where two flat dies are used to deform the work piece. 

Open die forging is known for its simplicity and the ability to handle a wide range of work piece sizes. However, it has lower production volume and challenges in maintaining close size control​

1.2 Impression Die Forging

 This process involves creating impressions of the desired final shape in the top and bottom dies (a process called die-sinking). The work piece is pressed between these dies, taking the shape of the cavity as the metal spreads. Excess material, known as “flash,” is trimmed off. 

This type of forging is more precise than open die forging and is suitable for more complex shapes​

1.3 Closed Die Forging

Similar to impression die forging but differs in the precise control of material volume to minimize or eliminate flash formation.

2. Critical Issues in Forging

Forging can be susceptible to various defects, which are usually a result of issues with raw materials, heating practices, die design, or the forging process itself. Common defects include:

  • Laps and cracks: Caused by improper layering or folding of material.
  • Incomplete forging: Due to insufficient material or inadequate flow.
  • Mismatched forging: Resulting from misaligned die halves.
  • Scale pits: Formed by the embedding of scales into the metal surface.
  • Burnt or overheated metal: A consequence of improper heating.
  • Internal cracks: Caused by heavy hammer blows or improper heating.
  • Disrupted fibre flow lines: Due to rapid metal flow​

3. Advantages of Forging

  • Strength: Forged parts are generally stronger and more reliable than those manufactured by other methods. During forging, the metal’s grain structure becomes aligned with the part’s shape. This increases its resilience and resistance to impact and fatigue.
  • Versatility: A broad range of metals and alloys can be forged. Carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, titanium, aluminium, are the most popular metals that can be forged. 
  • Customization: Forging allows for the manufacturing of parts with complex shapes and specific designs which cannot be produced in other methods of fabrication. 
  • Economies of Scale: Initial investment and set up cost of forging is high but it pays off in large quantities. The cost per part decreases significantly when producing a large quantity of parts since it has very small variable costs.
  • Microstructure: The forging process refines the microstructure of the metal and improves material strength. It eliminates porosity, align the grain flow, and reduce chemical inconsistencies.
  • Heat Resistance: Forged parts are able to withstand higher temperatures. They are ideal for high-stress and high-heat applications.
  • Minimal Waste: Forging causes less wastage and scrap compared to alternative methods of casting or machining.
  • Ductility: Forging often enhances the ductility of the material. This is very useful in applications where flexibility and the ability to withstand deformation are required.
  • Consistency: Forged parts generally exhibit better consistency and uniformity across batches.

4. Applications of Forging

  • Gears: Used in automotive, aerospace, and industrial machinery.
  • Flanges: Components in piping systems for connecting pipes, valves, pumps, and other equipment.
  • Crankshafts: Essential in engines, converting linear motion into rotational motion.
  • Connecting Rods: Found in engines, connecting the piston to the crankshaft.
  • Axles: Key components in vehicles and machinery, supporting the weight and enabling rotation.
  • Shafts: Used in machines, transmitting power from the engine.
  • Bolts and Nuts: Critical in construction and machinery for fastening purposes.
  • Hooks and Shackles: Utilized in lifting and rigging applications.
  • Valve Bodies: Central components in controlling the flow of fluids in piping systems.
  • Levers and Handles: Common in machinery and tools for manual control.
  • Chains and Sprockets: For power transmission in various machinery.
  • Hand Tools: Like hammers and wrenches, known for their durability and strength.
  • Railroad Components: Such as couplings and wheels, vital for the railway industry.
  • Structural Components: In buildings and bridges, providing strength and support.
  • Agricultural Machinery Parts: Like ploughshares and tractor parts, durable and robust for heavy-duty use.

Novelty Structures supplies a variety of forging parts for multiple industries.


Steel Structures

Plant Engineering Fabrications

Bulk Material Handling Structures 

Steel Buildings

Steel Silos

Hoppers & Chutes

Steel Trusses

Mezzanines & Stairs

Steel Tanks


Laser Cutting 

Metal Bending

Plate Rolling